Сирингомиелия (SM) у собак: последствия для Кавалер Кинг Чарльз спаниель На сайте http://rhiannoncavaliers.com/articles/50-syringom ... -cavalier-king-charles-spaniel нашлаинтересную статью о Сирингомиелии. Сначала размещу оригинал на английском языке. потом переведу на русский. Syringomyelia (SM) in Dogs: Implications for the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel What is Syringomyelia (SM)? Syringomyelia (SM) is a congenital or acquired intraspinal disease. It is a disorder where a cyst or herniation, known as a syrinx, forms within the spinal cord and cause the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to become obstructed and accumulate, causing symptoms such as scratching, pain and limb dysfunction. In some cases it is seen in combination with hydrocephalus. This condition is thought to be similar to the Arnold Chiari Syndrome in humans which may also be accompanied by secondary syringomyelia or hydromyelia. It is considered multi species and has been reported in humans, dogs, cats, horses among others. Nor is it limited to one breed having been reported in breeds such as the Labrador Retriever, Weimaraner, Fox Terrier, Lhasa Apso, Pomeranian, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and many other small breeds. What are the symptoms? The most common symptom of Syringomyelia is an hypersensitivity in the neck area resulting in an uncontrolled urge to scratch at the neck and shoulders, quite often to the point that the dog will fall over. There is quite often discomfort and pain in the neck and ear areas. There may also be progressive weakness in the limbs and loss of bladder and bowel control. In the congenital form symptoms are usually first seen from 6 to 18 months of age but depending upon the degree affected could manifest at any age. In the acquired form symptoms can be seen any time after the original injury or trauma to the spine. How does a dog get Syringomyelia (SM)? Syringomyelia can be either acquired or congenital. If acquired, this would occur due to trauma, complications of surgery or disease such as a tumour and the syrinx would develop in the damaged segment of the spine and may expand causing difficulties. It is also possible that a difficult birth may cause damage in the neck/spine area resulting in the acquired form. If congenital, the condition would develop in the womb as a malformation and in this case the syrinx is usually in the cervical region of the spine. In the congenital condition, there is some suspicion that it may be a genetic and there are currently studies going on to establish a familial link and hopefully understand the mode of inheritance if genetic. (Please see the section "Implications in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels" for more information) How is it diagnosed? Though the condition was recognized symptomatically earlier it has only been due to the advances in advanced imaging techniques through the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that this disease has been understood and diagnosis been able to be confirmed. The MRI is the leading diagnostic tool used in determining Syringomyelia. It has only been since 1993 that a functional MRI was developed and around 1996 when it was advanced enough and readily available to diagnose spinal conditions in dogs. MRI images are formed by the combination of a strong magnetic field and radio wave interacting with the hydrogen protons in the body and then using a computer the information is collected and made into three dimensional pictures of the body. The MRI can then characterize and discriminate among the tissues using their physical and biochemical properties (water, fat, iron, blood and its breakdown products) allowing blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and contraction and relaxation of organs to be evaluated. Using the MRI then allows the neurologist to study the spine for the presence of a syrinx or any other abnormality, such as a tumour which might obstruct the flow of the spinal fluid. What is the treatment for Syringomyelia (SM)? There are several different treatments for Syringomyelia, some more successful that others. In some less severe cases the use of cortisteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may relieve the clinical symptoms. Decompression surgery to allow the CSF to flow normally may be necessary and in some cases a shunt is installed. Implications in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels "I have a Cavalier, should I be concerned"? This particular condition is known to affect only a small population of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels so odds are very much in your favour that your dog would not have this condition. If your dog is scratching or displaying some of the other symptoms more than likely it is due to another cause such as allergies which is a common condition in dogs. If concerned see a veterinarian for evaluation. Is Syringomyelia (SM) genetic? There is a suspicion that Syringomyelia is of a genetic nature. Due to the development of the MRI and genetic mapping, diagnosis and study of diseases such as this is now being made possible. Any speculation as to the genetic nature and possible carriers of this disease is premature at this stage. Note: This article was originally written circa 2000 and while much study of the condition has been done we are little advanced in our knowledge. We still do not know the numbers affected but with more dogs being scanned, particularly breeders' dogs it does not look like it is affecting a large number of the Cavalier population. There are still very big questions marks as to whether the condition is in fact genetic and if it is, how much environmental factors are to blame. Dogs scanned clear may produce dogs with the condition and dogs scanned and found to have the deformity have produced clear dogs. Much more study is needed in this condition and other health conditions that may affect the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the breed clubs around the world are all helping to fund various research projects. Visit the various National Breed Clubs (see links section) for information and to see what health projects they have undertaken to finance.